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Hugo Gellert: Karl Marx' 'Capital' in Lithographs

Index to Karl Marx''Capital' in Lithographs

Table of Contents
"What distinguishes the various economic types of society from one another (distinguishes for instance, a society based upon slavery from a society based upon wage labor), is nothing other than the way in which surplus labor is extorted from the actual producer, from the worker." page 33


-- 16th C. farm leases, how they benefit the capitalist farmer 12
-- agricultural capital 58, 59
-- "capital farms" or "merchant farms" 7
-- capitalist farmer origin 12
-- divorce of agriculture from manufacture 13
-- farm laborers: decrease in numbers; forced to work more intensively 12
-- revolution in, last third 15th Century 12
-- ownership of the soil [land] 57-59
-- share [tenant] farming 57
Aristotle's limitation re: equality of values 24
Articles of manufacture (see COMMODITIES) 13


Bacon's Essays 5
Banks and national debt 16, 17
-- Bank of England 16, 17
-- international lending 17
Beggars and the law 9
-- begging license 9
-- punishment for begging/vagrancy (flogging, branding, execution) 9


...The productivity of the worker as an associated worker is the productivity of capital. The enhanced productivity of labor which results from association is something that develops free, gratis, a soon as the workers are placed in certain conditions -- and capital places them in these conditions. 39

-- centralization of capital 19
-- circulation of commodities as start of capital 27
-- when money is not transformed into capital 30
-- historical tendency to accumulate 18
-- owners of capital vs. free workers 3, 50
-- capital's desire for profit, no matter how small 59
-- prelude to history of capital summarized 19
-- usurers' capital and merchants' capital 14
-- constant capital 12, 32
-- increases due to colonialism 16
-- industrial capital and creation of home market 13
-- variable capital 32, 51
-- international character 19
-- inevitable evolution and destruction 19
-- as the owner of product produced by the worker 30
-- competition among capitalists 45
-- role as supervisor over worker, tools, raw materials 30
Catholic Church, feudal land tenure before the Reformation 6
-- suppression of monasteries 6
Child labor (see LABOR)
-- in the name of Christianity 15
-- Dutch East Indies, Java, Celebes 15, 16
-- effects on common people of Holland 16
-- English East India Company, China and tea trade, monopoly on salt 15
-- Puritans offer bounty for scalps 15
-- West Indies 15
...the worker sells his labor power to capital because he lacks the material means requisite for the production of a commodity. But now his individual labor power actually ceases to function unless it is sold to capital. Now, it can function only in an environment which comes into existence in the capitalists's workshop after the sale of labor power has been effected.... 41

-- circulation of, via money (C–M–C: selling in order to buy) 26, 27
-- defined 20
-- example comparing a coat and 10 yards of linen 22-25
-- as repositories, products of human labor 20
-- created from raw materials and the means of subsistence; formerly, peasants produced means of subsistence from raw materials 13
-- transformation of money and commodities into capital 3, 30-33
-- use-value and exchange value of commodities compared 20, 22
-- exchange is what turns a product into a commodity 21
-- labor power as a commodity whose use value is a source of value 28
-- value of commodity; the utility of a commodity 22
Conscience: something that can have a price but no value 26
-- starting point for: large number workers and manufacture 41
-- how capital increases production 39
Cromwell 6


Denial [legend of "Perseus' cap"] 1
Division of labor (see also MANUFACTURING) 40 , 41


Earth: humankind's 'primitive larder and tool-house' 29
Edward III - Statute of Laborers 10
Edward VI - 1547 statute compelling slavery for anyone who refuses to work 9
Elizabeth I; recognition of pauperism 6
-- creation of great landholders 12
-- England as an example of the divorce of the worker from the soil 4
-- 'clearing of estates' 7 , 8 , 12
-- creation of home market as a result 13
-- expropriation of independent producers 13
-- evolution of expropriation -- from worker and land to capitalist 19
exchange value (see also under Value) 21


In manufacture and in handicrafts the worker uses a tool; in the factory he serves a machine. In the former case the movements of the instrument of labor proceed from the worker; but in the latter the movements of the worker are subordinate to those of the machine. 48

, consequences of its break up 4
-- free peasants 5
-- safeguards 4
-- wars and destruction of old nobility 5
Force, midwife of new society and economic power 14
Franklin, Benjamin: "War is robbery, commerce is generally cheating." 27


Henry II - vagrancy laws 9
Henry VII 5
Henry VIII - Act of 1530 dealing with beggars 9
Dr. Hunter quote, a caution against laborers who are too independent 5


-- development of large scale 41-49
-- modern, large-scale: succeeds in conquest of home market 13
-- industrial capitalist, origins 14-18
-- held back under feudal system and by guild regulations 14
INSTRUMENTS OF LABOR, i.e., means of production 29
-- earth, domestic animals as 29
-- Machines/Machinery 43-49
...Machinery like any other constituent of constant capital, does not create any value, but yields up its own value to the product it serves to beget. 44
International Workingmen's Association and 8 hour day 37


...what is advanced to the worker by the capitalist is only the worker's own labor, realized in a product... 51

-- abstract human labor 20
-- advancing to capitalist the use-value of labor power 28
-- as father of material wealth (and earth the mother of material wealth) 22
-- child labor 18, 35, 46
-- commodities as products of labor 20
-- creates value of commodity and creates use-values 22
-- exploitation of labor power = surplus value 33
-- law of supply and demand of labor 10
-- measured by duration of time 21
-- as a necessity imposed by nature 22
-- as a process: purposive activity, its subject matter, its instruments 29
-- purchase and sale of labor power 28
-- rental of labor power 55
-- skilled labor composed of simple labor elements 22
-- stored in commodities 20, 28
-- and surplus value 29
-- tailoring vs. weaving as qualitatively different forms of labor; analogy of a coat 22-25
-- value of labor power determined by time 28
-- communal land 7
-- landed aristocracy, new 6
-- privatization of public lands 6
-- productivity of land vs. number of farm laborers 12
-- serfs, driven from the land 5, 7, 8
-- small property owners, as a class of 'barbarians' 59
-- State lands, stolen, sold off 6
-- laws to justify theft of public land 6
-- laws to regulate labor hours and/or pay 10, 36, 47


...To the extent that the labor process is a simple process between man and nature, its simple elements remain the same in all social forms of development. But every definite historical form of this process develops more and more its material foundations and social forms. Whenever a certain maturity is reached, one definite social form is discarded and displaced by a higher one. The time for the coming of such a crisis is announced by the depth and breadth of the contradictions and antagonisms, which separate the conditions of distribution, and with them the definite historical form of the corresponding conditions of production.... 60
Macaulay cited, on yeomen vs. country squires 6
-- as competition for laborers 49
-- as something to cheapen cost of commodities 42
-- as weapons of capital 49
-- as the basis of large-scale industry which in turn creates capitalistic agriculture 13
-- collective worker, formed of many detail workers, as machinery and as builders of machines 41
-- John Stuart Mill quoted on the benefits of mechanical inventions 42
-- three parts to machine: motor, transmitting mechanism, mechanized tool or working machine 42
-- horse power 42
-- ribbon loom; revolt against, and other machines 48, 49
-- power loom 49
-- sawmill, steam engine, wool shearer 49
-- Roman water wheel as elementary form of machine 41
-- steam engine and James Watt 42
-- concentration of workers, raw materials and tools into a ' few working barracks' 12
-- detail worker as the basis of manufacture 40
-- division of labor 40, 41
-- divorced from agriculture 13
-- industry, large scale 13
-- industry, petty 19
-- means of production = material factors; labor power = personal factors 29
-- products, when used as means of production for other products 29
-- world market 19
-- home market 13
Mirabeau ['lion of the revolution'] quoted on the significance of independent workers 13
-- as a commodity 26
-- Augier quote: "Money comes into the world..." 18
-- function as measure of value and standard of price 26
-- the riddle and magic of gold/silver 25
-- transformation into capital (M–C–M, buying in order to sell) 26, 27
-- transformation into commodity 27
-- wages substituted for direct provision of means of subsistence 12


National Debt 16


Original Sin; theological legend and economic history 2
Ortes, quoted 52


Pecqueur quote: "perpetuation of universal mediocrity" 19
Perseus legend 1
William Petty quoted 22
Polarization of population into capitalists and workers 10
Poor laws 7
Poverty, inevitable balance against wealth 52
Profit 50
The capitalist...wants to get as much labor as possible for as little money as possible. [What] interests him in practice, is the difference between the price of labor power and the value which its function creates. But he tries to buy all commodities as cheaply as possible, and invariably explains his profit to himself as due simply to buying cheap and selling dear, to buying a thing below its value and sell it above its value. He therefore fails to realise that if such a thing as the value of labor really existed, and he really paid this value, no capital could exist, for his money could not be transformed into capital... 50

Price, quoted on subject of land enclosure 7
Prices - rise as rents remain steady, increasing farmer's money capital 12
-- defined 3
-- factors of primary accumulation: systems of colonialism, national debt, taxation, production 14
-- reliance on force 14
-- State authority to regulate wages, set hours, as an essential element of 10
PRODUCTION (in essence, reproduction) 51
-- two traits of capitalist production: commodities and surplus value 60
The capitalist process of production regarded as a connected whole, or as a process of reproduction, therefore produces, not only commodities, not only surplus value, for it also produces and reproduces the capitalist relation itself; produces and reproduces, on one side the capitalist, and on the other the wage worker. 51

-- private property contrasted with social/collective property 19
-- small peasant's property 57-59
Public debt 16


Reformation 6
RENT: transformed from surplus value into ground rent 54-59
-- labor rent 55
-- money rent 56


Scottish clans, driven from the land 7, 8
-- turn to fishing 8
-- forced into towns 8
-- role of Dutchess of Sutherland 8
-- uprooted a second time 8
Science in the service of techniques 19
SLAVE TRADE 14, 15, 18
-- Slavery 35
-- absurdity of concept of "ownership" of land or human beings 54
-- capitalist justification of slavery 54
-- in relation to capital 58
Private property in land implies the privilege of the landlord to exploit the body of the globe, the bowels of the earth, the air, and with them the conservation and development of life.... 54
-- 1349 and 1360; penalties for paying/accepting high wages 10
-- related to the length of the working day 36, 47
-- penalties for workers acting in combination 10
-- maximum wages prescribed; no mention of minimum wage 10
-- 1796: advocation of minimum wage for agricultural workers 11
-- 1813: repeal of laws setting maximum wages 11
-- 1825: abolition of law against workers acting in combination 11
-- 1871: Parliamentary Act to legally reorganize trade unions reduces power of workers to act in combination (strike, unionize) 11
-- relative vs. absolute surplus value 38
-- as it relates to the unequal exchange of commodities 27
-- as it relates to labor power 28, 29
-- making surplus value 'the sole end and aim of mankind' 16
-- process creating surplus value defined 31
-- rate of 33
-- transformed into ground-rent; price of land 54


tariffs, protective 17
taxation, excessive as a principle and effects on wage earner 17
tenants-at-will (small tenant farmers) 7
tools, as products of labor 29


Usury 14


-- circulation of commodities does not create value 27
-- Aristotle: inability to find common essence (human labor) to determine and compare commodity values 24
-- commodity's value: congealed labor time 21
-- gold as both use and exchange value 25
-- labor as a measure of value 50
-- independent of use value 21
-- having use value without value; when it isn't the outcome of labor 21
-- having use value without being a commodity 21
-- use value only in relation to other commodities 25
-- in exchange, both parties may gain as regards use value 27
-- in exchange, it is impossible for both parties to gain as regards exchange value 27
-- money form 24
-- transferred by machinery to the product 44
-- Exchange Value 20, 24
-- Surplus Value 29-34, 50, 58, 60
All surplus value, whatever the form into which it may subsequently become crystalized -- as profit, land-rent, interest, etc. -- is...the materialization of unpaid labor time. The secret of the self-expansion of capital finds its explanation in this, that capital has at its disposal a definite quantity of other people's unpaid labor...50

-- Use Value i.e, utility 20


Wages 50, 51
Wool trade, Flanders vs. England 5
"Among all the classes that confront the bourgeoisie today, the proletariat alone is really revolutionary. Other classes decay and perish with the rise of large-scale industry, but the proletariate is the most characteristic product of that industry. The lower middle class -- small manufacturers, small traders, handicraftsmen, peasant proprietors -- one and all fight the bourgeoisie in the hope of safe-guarding their existence as sections of the middle class. . . . They are reactionary, for they are trying to make the wheels of history turn backwards."
-- Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party, London, 1848.

-- as the inevitable result of the capitalist process 10, 52
-- class or social differences 10, 52
-- as customers of the home market 13
-- detail worker vs. craftsman 40-42
-- divorced from the soil 4, 12
-- disciplined, unified, organized by mechanism of capitalist method of production 19
-- effects on workers of utilizing machines; increased employment of women and children 45
-- free workers vs. owners of capital 3, 45
-- free wage earners compared to slaves 50
-- hunger as permanent condition and motivating force 52. 53
-- mankind condemned to work 'by sweat of his brow' 2
-- masterless proletarians 8
-- ownership of the means of production 19
-- proletariat, as revolutionary 60
-- relative surplus population 10
-- servile condition of masses 5, 10
-- skill of the worker 48, 49
-- unemployment, case histories 53
The 'House of Terror' for paupers, of which capitalists were alread dreaming in 1770, came into existence a few years later in the shape of a gigantic Workhouse for the industrial workers. It was called a factory. The ideal paled before the reality...36
-- English Laborer Statutes 36
-- history of development, shifting and conflicting attitudes 36, 47
--international responses to the notion of limiting the working day 37
-- labor and value components of working day 33
-- length of the working day 30-38, 47
-- conflict over length of working day: "Capital is dead labor" 34, 47
-- prolongation due to machinery 46
Workshops: united vs. separate [Mirabeau mentions] 13
--independent peasantry, role as Cromwell supporters, disappearance 6
--supplanted by tenants-at-will 7