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The Wind That Swept Mexico: the history of the Mexican Revolution 1910-1942

text Anita Brenner; 184 historical photographs assembled by George R. Leighton
Sources and chronology

In 1943, Anita Brenner wrote:

In The Wind That Swept Mexico, the story of the Mexican Revolution has been put together in English for the first time. There are no complete accounts of it in Spanish, either, so the sources are

1. Eye Witnesses. The author saw the upheaval as a child, and later knew many of its important participants and learned something about the way it looked to each of them. Its analysts and scholarly participants -- such as, for instance, Jesús Silva Herzog, Federico Bach, Ramón Beteta, Eduardo Suárez, José Miguel Bejarano -- have taught the author, amiably and patiently, much about the underlying facts and processes.

2. Biographies and memoirs, many written in the midst of struggle and as part of it.

3. General works such as the annual statistics and information compiled by the Mexican government, some for publication, some only for the guidance of its ministries; the United States Department of Commerce's bulletins and yearbooks; United States consular reports, and specific works such as Dr. Eyler Simpson's study of the Mexican land problem (The Ejido, Mexico's Way Out); Dr. Ernest Gruening's history of Mexico on which the author worked as a research assistant; Andres Molina Enriquez's Los Grandes Problemas Nacionales and La Revolución Agraria de Mexico. Much valuable information was also found in James Morton Callahan's American Foreign Policy in Mexican Relations, Walter Flavius McCaleb's The Public Finances of Mexico, Edgar Turlington's Mexico and Her Foreign Creditors; Edwar R. Bell's The Political Shame of Mexico and Marjorie Clark's Organized Labor in Mexico.

However, if the list of printed sources read and consulted were to be given, [sic] completely it would run on page after page tediously; and, since this is no academic history nor Ph. D. thesis, it would add nothing to the story but more space. When the complete history of the Mexican Revolution is written, with unlimited opportunities to check each eye witness against the other, each printed source against its sources, the details in The Wind That Swept Mexico can be amplified and some, maybe, will stand correction. The author does not claim to be infallible. She does know that enough checking and digging has been done through a good many years to make her sure that she has arrived at a more complete, accurate and fair account than has so far been published.

CHRONOLOGY (Some important dates in Mexican History)

Linked text goes to images from the book with related content.

1520 -- Conquest of Mexico by Cortez

1810, September 16 -- Declaration of Mexican Indepenence by Father Miguel Hidalgo

1821 -- Recognition of Mexican Independence by Juan O'Donoju last Spanish viceroy

1836 -- Texas declares its independence of Mexico

1846-48 -- Mexican War with the United States

1859 -- Benito Juárez named President

1861-67 -- French intervention

1864 -- Arrival of Emperor Maximillian

1867, June 19 -- Execution of Maximillian

1867 -- Juárez elected President

1871 -- Revolt of General Porfirio Diaz against Juárez

1872 -- Death of Juárez

1877 --
Porfirio Diaz named President

1880 -- General Manuel Gonzalez elected President

1884-1910 -- Diaz re-elected continuously

1906, June --The Green Cananea Copper Company Strike

1907, January 7 -- Suppression of the Rio Blanco strike

1908, March -- Publication of the Creelman interview with Diaz in Pearson's Magazine

1909 -- Publication of Molina Enriquez' The Great National Problems

1909, June 20 -- Risings in Chihuahua and Coahuila set off by Ricardo and Enriquez Flores Magón

1910, September -- Centennial of Mexican Independence

1911, January 30 -- Revolt in Lower California headed by Ricardo Flores Magón

1911, March 6 -- Mobilization of United States Army on Mexican border

1911, May 10 -- Capture of the City of Juarez by the Maderistas

1911, May 25 -- Resignation and flight of Diaz

1911, June 7 -- Madero enters Mexico City

1911, November 28 -- Emiliano Zapata issues the Plan of Ayala

1913, February 9-19 -- "The Tragic Ten Days" in Mexico City and accession of Victoriano Huerta to the presidency

1913, February 22 -- Murder of President Madero and Vice-President Suárez

1914, April 2 -- Capture of Torreón by Francisco Villa

1914, April 21 -- Seizure of Vera Cruz by the United States Navy

1914, July 15 -- Resignation and flight of President Huerta

1914, November 1 -- The Aguascalientes convention

1915, April 16 -- Defeat of Villa by Obregón at the battle of Celaya

1916, March 9 -- Villa's raid on Columbus, New Mexico

1917, February 5 -- Withdrawal from Mexico of the Pershing Expedition

1917, May 1 -- Carranza inaugurated as Constitutional President

1917 -- New Mexican Constitution framed at Queretaro

1919, April 10 -- Murder of Emiliano Zapata

1920, May 21 -- Murder of President Carranza at Tlaxcalantongo

1920, December 1 -- Alvaro Obregón inaugurated as President

1923 -- Expulsion of Monsignor Filippi, papal delegate

1923, August 31 -- Obregón's government recognized by the United States

1923, July 18 -- Murder of Francisco Villa

1924, December 1 -- Plutarco Elias Calles inaugurated as President

1926, January -- The Church denounces the religious and educational provisions of the new Constitution

1926, July 31 -- Religious exercises suspended by the Church

1927, October -- Arrival of Dwight Morrow as United States Ambassador

1928 -- Re-election of Alvaro Obregón

1928, July 17 -- Assassination of Obregón by José León Toral

1928, December 1 -- Emilio Portes Gil inaugurated as Provisional President

1930, February 5 -- Pascual Ortiz Rubio inaugurated as President

1932, September 1 -- Ortiz Rubio resigns and General Abelardo Rodriquez assumes the Presidency

1933, March 17 -- Josephus Daniels appointed United States Ambassador to Mexico

1934, November 30 -- General Lázaro Cárdnas inaugurated as President

1937, February 25 -- Louis Martinez appointed Archbishop by Pope Pius XI

1938, March 18 -- President Cárdenas expropriates the foreign controlled oil fields.

1940 -- Manuel Ávila Camacho elected President

1942, June 1 -- Mexico declares war on the Axis [Germany, Italy and Japan]